Italy has a diversified industrial economy, which is divided into a developed industrial north, dominated by private companies, and a less-developed, welfare-dependent, agricultural south, with high unemployment. The Italian economy is driven in large part by the manufacture of high-quality consumer goods produced by small and medium-sized enterprises, many of them family-owned. Italy also has a sizable underground economy, which by some estimates accounts for as much as 15% of GDP. These activities are most common within the agriculture, construction, and service sectors. Italy has moved slowly on implementing needed structural reforms, such as reducing graft, overhauling costly entitlement programmes, and increasing employment opportunities for young workers, particularly women. These conditions will be exacerbated in the near-term by the global economic downturn, but in the longer-term Italy’s low fertility rate and quota-driven immigration policies will increasingly strain its economy. The Italian government has struggled to limit government spending, but Italy’s exceedingly high public debt remains above 115% of GDP, and its fiscal deficit – just 1.5% of GDP in 2007 – exceeded 5% in 2009 as the costs of servicing the country’s debt rose. A tax amnesty program implemented in late 2009 to repatriate untaxed assets held abroad has netted the federal government more than $135 billion.
Over the past 20 years the government has transformed New Zealand from an agrarian economy dependent on concessionary British market access to a more industrialised, free market economy that can compete globally. This dynamic growth has boosted real incomes – but left behind some at the bottom of the ladder – and broadened and deepened the technological capabilities of the industrial sector. Per capita income rose for 10 consecutive years until 2007 in purchasing power parity terms, but fell in 2008-09. Debt-driven consumer spending drove robust growth in the first half of the decade, helping fuel a large balance of payments deficit that posed a challenge for economic managers. Inflationary pressures caused the central bank to raise its key rate steadily from January 2004 until it was among the highest in the OECD in 2007-08; international capital inflows attracted to the high rates further strengthened the currency and housing market, however, aggravating the current account deficit. The economy fell into recession before the start of the global financial crisis and contracted for five consecutive quarters in 2008-09. In line with global peers, the central bank cut interest rates aggressively and the government developed fiscal stimulus measures. The economy posted a 1.4% decline in 2009, but pulled out of recession late in the year. Nevertheless, key trade sectors remain vulnerable to weak external demand. The government plans to raise productivity growth and develop infrastructure, while reining in government spending.
WHY CHOOSE NEW ZEALAND FOR YOUR OVERSEAS EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME?
There are many reasons to choose to study in New Zealand. In addition to its excellent quality teaching system, which ranks New Zealand learning institutions as one of the best in the world, you will enjoy breath-taking landscapes, amazing hospitality and the adrenalin of hundreds of exciting sports activities.
And it does not end there. International students will have the unique opportunity to bond with the indigenous culture of the Maori, one of the few places in the world where the native culture has managed to develop synergy with modernity, without losing the strength of its roots and the beauty of its traditions.
All this could be at your fingertips in New Zealand.
English is New Zealand’s main official language. As well as offering an excellent level of education, New Zealand educational institutions have particularly good structures in place for the integration of international students into the local culture. With a wide range of extracurricular activities, in addition to learning English, students have the opportunity to travel the country and encounter the wonderful ethnic and cultural mix which makes New Zealand such a special place.
Each new student of English in New Zealand must: Be at least 16 years old,
be able to demonstrate the availability of funds to support themselves during their studies,
hold valid international health insurance,
be enrolled in a recognised New Zealand educational institution.
Each new English course starts on a Monday. On the student’s first day, the student learns about the course and institutional structures and is tested to ensure that he or she is placed in the class which best suits his or her learning needs.
There is a range of English language courses to suit the diverse needs of students, for example: General English, IELTS (International English Test System) preparation and TESOL (Teaching English to speakers of other languages) preparation for those who already have a high level of English knowledge and aim to start a career in English teaching.
Vocational courses in New Zealand offer training that is practical and career-oriented. These courses offer a blend of tertiary study with hands-on, practical training in the workplace.
Graduates of vocational courses may still progress to higher level study, including diploma and bachelor’s degree courses at university.
For those viewing New Zealand as a potential immigration destination, a number of vocational skills are in high demand and are recognised by the New Zealand Government’s skilled migrant category. Vocational qualifications obtained in New Zealand will be automatically recognised (as opposed to requiring an assessment of equivalence), ensuring important points towards a possible request for a work permit or a permanent residence visa.
Some of the options in vocational courses are: business management, marketing, international business, construction, tourism and hospitality, information technology, graphic design, photography, film and video.
The duration of a vocational course depends on the area and the level you want to achieve and may be of one to three years in duration.
Course start dates: Vocational courses have specific start dates every 2 or 3 months.
Education: the minimum education required to enrol in an entry-level vocational course (level 5 in New Zealand) is satisfactory completion of high school. Students who already hold a university degree may apply for advanced courses (levels 6 & 7).
English language knowledge: an intermediate to advanced level of English, equivalent to IELTS 5.5, is required. Some technical institutions offer an English placement test for those with fluency in the language and do not require such students to have an English language certificate to prove the minimum level required.
Working during your overseas experience programme is a great opportunity to develop your English, make new friends, and get money to pay the bills. You might even extend your trip and take advantage of the strong labour market that exists in New Zealand, provided you have the necessary visa.
It is now possible to spend your time in New Zealand as a mixture of study and working holiday. If you are enrolled in a Category 1 institution for a minimum 14 week full time programme, you can work for up to 20 hours per week from the day you arrive in the country.
Book a Skype appointment with an education specialist to find out the best options for your future in New Zealand.
Now is your time and New Zealand is your place. Open your heart and mind and come to New Zealand to experience a lifestyle you can’t find anywhere else than here.
Ka kite ano! (See you soon!)